Conclusion and References

This chapter has presented some of the ways that language learners can interact socially and shown how both teachers and learners can use technology to support and encourage collaboration. Each of the activities provides students with specific roles to play that are important to the outcome of the task, gives them choices so that they must discuss and plan, and provides them with important reasons to listen and respond to each  other. Even these task features do not guarantee that learners will interact and learn, but chances are better that they will than if the tasks are not planned to enhance interaction.

Now complete the following exercises before returning to Canvas to complete Discussion 4.


Burns, & Richards, 2009

Chapelle, 1998

Du & Wagner, 2007

Gass, & Mackey, 2015

Godwin-Jones, 2003

Healey et al.,  2011

ISTE, 2018

Kagan, 1994

Kessler, 2009, 2018

Mackey, Ab-buhl & Gass, 2012

Nyikos & Hashimoto, 1997

Peregoy & Boyle, 2017

Reinders & Hubbard, 2013

Richards & Lockhart, 1994

Sadler, 2007

Stockwell, 2010

Sun & Chang, 2012

Swain, 2000

Van der Zwaard, & Bannink, 2016

Warschauer (1998)


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OEID Performance: Chapter Revision by Colleen Sanders is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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